This page has common plant terminology and definitions-
Alternate leaf arrangement- leaves are not directly on
opposite sides of the stem, instead they are staggered slightly
Annual- a plant that completes its life cycle within
one calendar year, dies after one year
Anther- The top of the stamen, which produces the
Biennial- a plant that completes its life cycle over 2
years, the first year is spent growing leaves, stems and roots.
The second year is when the plant "bolts" upwards producing flowers and
going to seed, after which the plant dies
Bract- A modified leaf attached to the base or stalk of
Bud- An undeveloped leaf or flower of a plant
Bulb- A specialized underground bud that sends down
roots and stores water and nutrients
Cellulose- the substance in plant cells that makes
plants rigid and aids in keeping plants from collapsing
Cotyledon- The first leaves of a seed plant.
These are also called the "seed leaves"
Emersed plants- a plant that is rooted in shallow
water. Most of the vegetative growth is above water.
Native plant- A plant that is historically found in its
current area. These plants are generally good for an area, as they
give competition to non-native plants.
Non-native plant- any plant that is not historically found
in its current area. These plants are usually introduced into new
areas by human activity or livestock
Noxious Weed- a plant that has been designated as being
harmful to crop production, habitat, livestock and/or humans
Opposite leaf arrangement- leaves are directly on
opposite sides of the stem
Perennial- a plant that grows for 3 or more years,
usually flowering each year
Rays- narrow flowers that appear as a single petal on
members of the Asteraceae (Sunflower) family. An example is
Rhizome- a root-like stem that grows horizontally
underground and produces new leaves and shoots
Roots- The underground parts of a plant that uptake
nutrients and water
Rosette- The beginning formation of a plant after the
seedling stage. It is a grouping of basal leaves
Runner- A creeping stem that sends down new roots at spaced
intervals called nodes. These nodes can form new plants and detach
from the parent plant.
Stem- The main axis of a plant, the central stalk
Stolon- a modified stem growing along the ground that
develops new plants, an example is strawberry plants.
Submersed plant- plants that develop completely under
the surface of water, leaves and flowers may eventually grow above the
Terrestrial plants- plants that grow on land, not in
Weed- any plant that crowds out cultivated or desired